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Atlas of Human Anatomy, 4th Edition
By Frank H. Netter, MD




Consulting Editors
Foreword
Preface to the First Edition
Contributors
About the Atlas


Consulting Editors

Jennifer K. Brueckner, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology
University of Kentucky College of Medicine
Lexington, Kentucky
Noelle A. Granger, PhD
Professor
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
 
Stephen W. Carmichael, PhD, DSc
Professor
Departments of Anatomy and Orthopedic Surgery
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota
John T. Hansen, PhD
Professor of Neurobiology and Anatomy
Associate Dean for Admissions
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Rochester, New York
 
Thomas R. Gest, PhD
Associate Professor
Division of Anatomical Sciences and Department of Medical Education
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Anil H. Walji, MD, PhD
Professor and Director, Division of Anatomy
Professor of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging
Professor of Surgery
Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada



Foreword

   The Fourth Edition of Atlas of Human Anatomy by Frank H. Netter, MD, has been updated by our Consulting Editor team of Jennifer K. Brueckner, Stephen W. Carmichael, Thomas R. Gest, Noelle A. Granger, John T. Hansen, and Anil H. Walji. We have each reviewed, modified, and updated a section of the Atlas. Throughout the book, new radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) images, CT angiograms, and magnetic resonance images have been added, which reflects the importance of diagnostic imaging in clinical anatomy and medicine. In this edition, 45 plates have been revised to show corrected anatomical relationships, 290 plates have been relabeled, and there are 17 completely new plates. Wonderful new artwork for this edition has been created by Carlos A. G. Machado, MD, who has contributed to the Netter illustrations for over ten years. Anatomical nomenclature has been brought up to date, and clinical terms and eponyms in common usage have been included parenthetically. The genius of Dr. Netter’s paintings is that the anatomy is portrayed clearly, realistically, and in a clinically relatable fashion while maintaining the balance between complexity and oversimplification. We have tried to adhere to these principles in the creation of the new plates for this edition. Finally, some of the plates were rearranged as page-pairs, where appropriate, to facilitate side-by-side comparisons of commonly illustrated elements. This fourth edition owes much to the consulting editors of the earlier editions, Drs Sharon Colacino (Oberg) (first edition), Arthur F. Dalley II (second edition), and John T. Hansen (third edition), who shepherded their edition with great skill and uncompromising professionalism, making our task significantly easier.

   The head and neck is a particularly challenging area for students, residents and faculty to master, due not only to the sheer number of structures packed in this relatively small region of the human body, but also the complexity of their three-dimensional anatomical organization. The age-old aphorism that "there is more anatomy above the hyoid bone than below it" presents a unique challenge to anyone trying to portray the anatomy of this region in a simple, visually appealing, and clinically relevant manner. More than ten new plates have been added to this section. For the first time, spectacular original paintings created by Carlos Machado illustrate clinically important structures such as the uncovertebral joints of the cervical vertebrae, the vertebral veins, and the intricate vasculature of the eye, to mention a few, with artistic brilliance, anatomical precision, and visual appeal that is unsurpassed. The section includes a concise treatment of the central nervous system, including the cranial nerves and important central pathways.

   In the Back section, a new plate illustrates the proper placement of a lumbar epidural anesthetic agent, as well as the location for lumbar puncture or "spinal tap." Autonomics are traditionally the bane of many students, and excellent new drawings of the autonomic nervous system by Dr. Machado will serve as a new educational resource for these difficult concepts.

   The Thorax section underwent minor editorial corrections of terminology and subtle artwork modifications to more accurately reflect the most common anatomical patterns. For instance, the representation of the azygos venous system pattern was altered to reflect the most common arrangement of these highly variable veins. The inclusion of the thoracic cross-sectional images at the end of the section, rather than in the later section, reinforces the importance of knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy in the interpretation of cross-sectional MR and CT images.

   The Abdomen section has had the most extensive revision for label changes and positioning of leader lines. By popular request, the plate showing the common variations in the branches of the celiac artery, which appeared in the first edition Abdomen section, has been reinstated. The anatomy of the pelvis is a particularly difficult area to teach and, because of the depth and tight organization of the internal structures, difficult to illustrate. The Netter illustrations of pelvic anatomy are outstanding because of the clarity of their presentation and their scope of coverage. A very small number of plates were eliminated to permit the inclusion of the illustration of pelvic fascia, a parasagittal view of the broad ligament, and normal imaging (male and female radiographs, cystourethrograms, and a histosalpingogram). Comparative images of male and female pelvic anatomy were reorganized to allow their side-by-side comparison.

   New CT angiograms have been included in the Upper Limb and Lower Limb sections. This new technology not only clearly demonstrates blood vessels, but vividly shows bony landmarks to which the blood vessels are related. The ligaments of the wrist have been illustrated in more detail to reflect their increased importance in arthroscopic procedures and other applications of new technology to this joint.

   We hope you enjoy this new edition of the Atlas of Human Anatomy and that you find it useful for learning and for your career. For the standard edition and enhanced international edition of the Atlas, we have included access to the website www.netteranatomy.com. By registering on this website, you will be able to access material that has been organized to help you better understand anatomy and its application to the practice of clinical medicine. More information about the website, including PIN code for access, can be found on the inside front cover of the Atlas.

Jennifer K. Brueckner, PhD
Stephen W. Carmichael, PhD, DSc
Thomas R. Gest, PhD
Noelle A. Granger, PhD
John T. Hansen, PhD
Anil H. Walji, MD, PhD

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Preface to the First Edition

   I have often said that my career as a medical artist for almost 50 years has been a sort of "command performance" in the sense that it has grown in response to the desires and requests of the medical profession. Over these many years, I have produced almost 4,000 illustrations, mostly for The CIBA (now Netter) Collection of Medical Illustrations but also for Clinical Symposia. These pictures have been concerned with the varied subdivisions of medical knowledge such as gross anatomy, histology, embryology, physiology, pathology, diagnostic modalities, surgical and therapeutic techniques and clinical manifestations of a multitude of diseases. As the years went by, however, there were more and more requests from physicians and students for me to produce an atlas purely of gross anatomy. Thus, this atlas has come about, not through any inspiration on my part but rather, like most of my previous works, as a fulfillment of the desires of the medical profession.

   It involved going back over all the illustrations I had made over so many years, selecting those pertinent to gross anatomy, classifying them and organizing them by system and region, adapting them to page size and space and arranging them in logical sequence. Anatomy of course does not change, but our understanding of anatomy and its clinical significance does change, as do anatomical terminology and nomenclature. This therefore required much updating of many of the older pictures and even revision of a number of them in order to make them more pertinent to today’s ever-expanding scope of medical and surgical practice. In addition, I found that there were gaps in the portrayal of medical knowledge as pictorialized in the illustrations I had previously done, and this necessitated my making a number of new pictures that are included in this volume.

   In creating an atlas such as this, it is important to achieve a happy medium between complexity and simplification. If the pictures are too complex, they may be difficult and confusing to read; if oversimplified, they may not be adequately definitive or may even be misleading. I have therefore striven for a middle course of realism without the clutter of confusing minutiae. I hope that the students and members of the medical and allied professions will find the illustrations readily understandable, yet instructive and useful.

   At one point, the publisher and I thought it might be nice to include a foreword by a truly outstanding and renowned anatomist, but there are so many in that category that we could not make a choice. We did think of men like Vesalius, Leonardo da Vinci, William Hunter and Henry Gray, who of course are unfortunately unavailable, but I do wonder what their comments might have been about this atlas.


Frank H. Netter, MD
(1906-1991)
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Contributors

Digital Editor

Noelle A. Granger, PhD
Professor
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
USA

Anatomy Lab

Stephen W. Carmichael, PhD DSc
Professor
Department of Anatomy and Orthopedic Surgery
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Noelle A. Granger, PhD
Professor
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
USA
 
Sachithevi Sivananthan, BSc (Hons)
5th Year Medical student
Guy's, King's & St Thomas Medical School
King's College London
London
UK
Kaji Sritharan, MRCS MBBS BSc
Clinical Fellow in Vascular Surgery
Charing Cross Hospital
Imperial College London
London
UK
 
Sam Yasen, MBBS BSc (Physiology)
Pre-registration house officer/ F1 doctor
Guys & St Thomas' NHS Trust
London
UK
 


Review Center

O. W. Henson, Jr, PhD
Professor Emeritus
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
USA
Carol Scott-Conner, MD PhD
Professor of Surgery
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
Iowa City
USA
 
Janet Smith, PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy
Drexel University College of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
USA
Stephen Thompson, MD MEd
Resident in Orthopaedic Surgery
University of Maryland
Baltimore, Maryland
USA


Clinical Anatomy

Harold Ellis, CBE Mch FRCS
Clinical Anatomist
Division of Anatomy, Cell and Human Biology
Guy's, King's and St Thomas' School of Biomedical Sciences
London
UK
Thomas R. Gest, PhD
Associate Professor
Division of Anatomical Sciences and Department of Medical Education
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, Michigan
USA
 
Peter Gogalniceanu, MBBS BSc (Hons)
Academic Foundation Officer (Surgery)
University College London
North Central Thames Foundation School
London
UK
Noelle A. Granger, PhD
Professor
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, North Carolina
USA
 
Vishy Mahadevan, PhD FRCS
Barber's Company Reader in Anatomy
Raven Department of Education
The Royal College of Surgeons of England
London
UK
Hazim Sadideen, MBBS (Hons) BSc (Hons)
House Officer / F1 Doctor
Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Trust
London
UK

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About the Atlas

The most beloved and best-selling anatomy atlas in the English language is back... classic Netter, only better!

   Over 540 beautifully colored and easily understood illustrations depict the complete human body with unsurpassed clarity and accuracy.
 
Meticulously revised labels promote an unprecedented level of accuracy.
 
An increased clinical focus emphasizes anatomy of direct relevance to medical practice.
 
57 revised, 200 relabeled, and 17 entirely new plates, drawn fully in the tradition of Frank.

Netter – plus more imaging and clinical images – supplement the existing treasury of artwork for a more complete picture than ever before.
 
Six new Consulting Editors ensure this 4th edition's accuracy and usefulness in the lecture theatre, classroom, and dissection lab.
 

June 2006 • Over 600 pages
Over 540 plates • Soft cover

ISBN: 1-4160-3385-8
ISBN-13: 978-1-4160-3385-1

New online features boost your learning and reference power! At www.netteranatomy.com, you’ll access…
 
   Over 80 of the most important anatomy illustrations from the book.
 
   Interactive Anatomy Dissection Modules provided by the University of North Carolina.
 
   Radiographs, CT scans, MRIs, and angiograms, with "labels on/off" buttons for self testing.
 
   QuickTime movies of stacked, transverse, and sectional images from the Visible Human Project (VHP).
 
   Integration links to other STUDENT CONSULT titles.
 
   Netter Special Areas such as:

   Anatomy Lab with concise regional guides containing summary overviews with suggested study aims... Netter plates, imaging, photographs and tables... and Top 50 Anatomical Facts.
 
   Review Center with "Identification Spot Tests" and USMLE-style multiple-choice questions.
 
   Clinical Anatomy featuring imaging, case studies and Top 100 Clinical Pearls.
 
   Surgical Anatomy with modules from the University of North Carolina, procedural articles, and USMLE-style questions.
 
   and more!


Why Netter is Even Better!
 
 

PROBLEM: I have to make my own preparations for the next day’s dissection classes or tutorials. My textbooks and course notes are useful but I need to source additional information. SOLUTION: The electronic material on netteranatomy.com (a registration access PIN is included in my copy of Atlas of Human Anatomy 4e) provides me with Anatomy Lab and tutorial style introductory overviews to major structures while clinical boxes highlight and expand upon important information. I also have access to two video modules from the University of North Carolina dissection program.
PROBLEM: It is important that I can quickly identify, learn and memorize anatomical structures as well as understand how they relate to each other. SOLUTION: My Netter Atlas helps me to identify and memorize anatomical structures and a number of the Netter plates are available online with on-off labeling for self-testing and integration links to additional content aids my clinical understanding. There are mnemonics too!
PROBLEM: My tutors and lecturers often make clinical references and link it to my anatomy teaching. I find this really helps me align my knowledge particularly as my medical degree is an integrated course. SOLUTION: On Netteranatomy.com I can access case studies, clinical photographs, anatomy tables and survival guides, along with the top 100 “must know clinical notes” thereby enriching my studies.
PROBLEM: It is important that at the end of each day I review and study material learnt and discussed in lectures and the Dissection Room. I often read around my notes by referring to information on the internet. SOLUTION: Netteranatomy.com allows me to access information via integration links to other basic and clinical sciences and I am also able to seamlessly search the other books I have registered with StudentConsult.com.
PROBLEM: I am a Surgery student and Demonstrator to 1st year medical students. I have to brush up on my anatomy knowledge in a short space of time as it has been a few years since I was last in the Dissecting Room examining cadavers. SOLUTION: The UNC modules presented on Student Consult and a special question bank designated to USMLE Step 2 questions allow me to quickly revise my knowledge.
PROBLEM: My lecture notes and course guides are sometimes not comprehensive enough and I must conduct my own self study and revision. SOLUTION: The "must know clinical notes", integration links and different self-study options help me be a better student!

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